Refereed Papers

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Refereed Papers




Anderson, K., Rossini, M., Pacheco-Labrador, J., Balzarolo, M., Mac Arthur, A., Fava, F., Julitta, T., Vescovo, L. (2013). Inter-comparison of hemispherical conical reflectance factors (HCRF) measured with four fibre-based spectrometers. Optics Express, 21 (1), 605-617.
Galvagno, M., Rossini, M., Migliavacca, M., Cremonese, E., Colombo, R., Morra di Cella, U. (2013). Seasonal course of photosynthetic efficiency in Larix decidua Mill. in response to temperature and change in pigment composition during senescence. International Journal of Biometeorology, DOI 10.1007/s00484-012-0614-y.




Mazzoni, M., Meroni, M., Fortunato, C., Colombo, R., Verhoef, W. (2012). Retrieval of maize canopy fluorescence and reflectance by spectral fitting in the O 2-A absorption band. Remote Sensing of Environment, 124 , 72-82.

Gusmeroli F., Della Marianna G., Fava F., Monteiro A., Bocchi S., Parolo G. (2012). Effects of ecological, landscape and management factors on plant species composition, biodiversity and forage value in Alpine meadows, Grass and Forage Science, in press.

Fava F., Colombo R., Bocchi S., Zucca C. (2012). Assessment of Mediterranean pasture condition using MODIS NDVI time series, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 6, 060530.

R÷mer C., Wahabzada M., Ballvora A., Pinto F., Rossini M., Panigada C., Behmann J., LÚon J., Thurau C., Bauckhage C., Kersting K., Rascher U., PlŘmer L. (2012). Early drought stress detection in cereals: Simplex Volume Maximization for hyperspectral image analysis. Functional Plant Biology,

Rossini M., Cogliati S., Meroni M., Migliavacca M., Galvagno M., Busetto L., Cremonese E., Julitta T., Siniscalco C., Morra di Cella U. and Colombo R. (2012). Remote sensing-based estimation of Gross Primary Production in a subalpine grassland. Biogeosciences, 9, 2565–2584. ISSN: 1726-4170. eISSN: 1726-4189.


Migliavacca, M., Galvagno, M., Cremonese, E., Rossini, M., Meroni, M., Sonnentag, O., Cogliati, S., Manca, G., Diotri, F., Busetto, L., Cescatti, A., Colombo, R., Fava, F., Morra di Cella, U., Pari, E., Siniscalco, C., Richardson, A.D. (2011). Using digital repeat photography and eddy covariance data to model grassland phenology and photosynthetic CO2 uptake. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151, 1325-1337.

Colombo R., Busetto L., Fava F., Di Mauro B., Migliavacca M., Cremonese E., Galvagno M., Rossini M., Meroni M., Cogliati S., Panigada C., Siniscalco C., Morra di Cella U. (2011). Phenological monitoring of grassland and larch in the Alps from Terra and Aqua MODIS images. Italian Journal of Remote Sensing, 43 (3), 83-96. ISSN: 1129-8596.

Busetto L., Meroni M., Crosta G.F., Guanter L., Colombo R. (2011), SpecCal: Novel software for in-field spectral characterization of high-resolution spectrometers, Computers & Geosciences, 37:1685-1691.

Feret J.-B., Francois C., Gitelson A., Asner G.P., Barry K.M., Panigada C., Richardson A.D., Jacquemoud S. (2011), Optimizing spectral indices and chemometric analysis of leaf chemical properties using radiative transfer modeling, Remote Sensing of Environment, 115:2742-2750.

Balzarolo M., Anderson K., Nichol C., Rossini M., Vescovo L., Arriga N., Wohlfahrt G., Calvet J.C., Carrara A., Cerasoli S., Cogliati S., Daumard F., Eklundh L., Elbers J.A., Evrendilek F., Handcock R.N., Kaduk J., Klumpp K., Longdoz B., Matteucci G., Meroni M., Montagnani L., Ourcival J.M., Sanchez-Canete E.P., Pontailler J.Y., Juszczak R., Scholes B., Martin M.P. (2011), Ground-Based Optical Measurements at European Flux Sites: A Review of Methods, Instruments and Current Controversies, Sensors, 11:7954-7981.

Meroni M., Barducci A., Cogliati S., Castagnoli F., Rossini M., Busetto L., Migliavacca M., Cremonese E., Galvagno M., Colombo R., di Cella U.M. (2011), The hyperspectral irradiometer, a new instrument for long-term and unattended field spectroscopy measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments, 82.

Migliavacca, M., Reichstein, M., Richardson, A.D., Colombo, R., Sutton, M.A., Lasslop, G., Tomelleri, E., Wohlfahrt, G., Carvalhais, N., Cescatti, A., Mahecha, M.D., Montagnani, L., Papale, D., Zaehle, S., Arain, A., Arneth, A., Black, T.A., Carrara, A., Dore, S., Gianelle, D., Helfter, C., Hollinger, D., Kutsch, W.L., Lafleur, P.M., Nouvellon, Y., Rebmann, C., Humberto R., Rodeghiero, M., Roupsard, O., SebastiÓ, M., Seufert, G., Soussana, J., Michiel K. (2011) Semiempirical modeling of abiotic and biotic factors controlling ecosystem respiration across eddy covariance sites. Global Change Biology, 17 (1), pp. 390-409.


Migliavacca, M., Reichstein, M., Richardson, A.D., Colombo, R., Sutton, M.A., Lasslop, G., Tomelleri, E., Wohlfahrt, G., Carvalhais, N., Cescatti, A., Mahecha, M.D., Montagnani, L., Papale, D., Zaehle, S., Arain, A., Arneth, A., Black, T.A., Carrara, A., Dore, S., Gianelle, D., Helfter, C., Hollinger, D., Kutsch, W.L., Lafleur, P.M., Nouvellon, Y., Rebmann, C., Humberto R., Rodeghiero, M., Roupsard, O., SebastiÓ, M., Seufert, G., Soussana, J., Michiel K. (2011) Semiempirical modeling of abiotic and biotic factors controlling ecosystem respiration across eddy covariance sites. Global Change Biology, 17 (1), pp. 390-409.


Busetto, L., Meroni, M., Crosta, G.F., Guanter, L., Colombo, R. (2010) SpecCal: a novel software for in-field spectral characterization of high-resolution spectrometers.  Computers & Geosciences - Accepted for publication

Rossini, M., Meroni, M., Migliavacca, M., Manca, G., Cogliati, S., Busetto, L., Picchi, V., Cescatti, A., Seufert, G., Colombo, R. (2010) High resolution field spectroscopy measurements for estimating gross ecosystem production in a rice field. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150 (9), pp. 1283-1296.

Busetto, L., Colombo, R., Migliavacca, M., Cremonese, E., Meroni, M., Galvagno, M., Rossini, M., Siniscalco, C., Morra Di Cella, U., Pari, E. (2010) Remote sensing of larch phenological cycle and analysis of relationships with climate in the Alpine region. Global Change Biology, 16 (9), pp. 2504-2517

Carvalhais, N., Reichstein, M., Collatz, G.J., Mahecha, M.D., Migliavacca, M., Neigh, C.S.R., Tomelleri, E., Benali, A.A., Papale, D., Seixas, J. (2010)Deciphering the components of regional net ecosystem fluxes following a bottom-up approach for the Iberian Peninsula. Biogeosciences, 7 (11), pp. 3707-3729.

Meroni, M., Busetto, L., Guanter, L., Cogliati, S., Crosta, G.F., Migliavacca, M.Panigada, C., Rossini, M., Colombo, R. (2010) Characterization of fine resolution field spectrometers using solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption features. Applied Optics 49, 2858-2871

Richardson, A.D., Black, T.A., Ciais, P., Delbart, N., Friedl, M.A., Gobron, N., Hollinger, D.Y., Kutsch, W.L., Longdoz, B., Luyssaert, S., Migliavacca, M., Montagnani, L., Munger, J.W., Moors, E., Piao, S., Rebmann, C., Reichstein, M., Saigusa, N., Tomelleri, E., Vargas, R., Varlagin, A. (2010) Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365 (1555), pp.3227-3246

Wang, T., Ciais, P., Piao, S., [...], Migliavacca, M., [...] (2010) Controls on winter ecosystem respiration at mid-and high-latitudes. Biogeosciences Discussions, 7 (5), pp. 6997-7027.

Mahecha, M.D., Reichstein, M., Carvalhais, N., Lasslop, G., Lange, H., Seneviratne, S.I., Vargas, R., Ammann, C., Arain, M.A., Cescatti, A., Janssens, I.A., Migliavacca, M., Montagnani, L., Richardson, A.D. (2010) Global convergence in the temperature sensitivity of respiration at ecosystem level. Science, 329 (5993), pp. 838-840.

Panigada, C., Rossini, M., Busetto, L., Meroni, M., Fava, F. and Colombo, R. (2010). Chlorophyll concentration mapping with MIVIS data to assess crown discoloration in the Ticino Park oak forest. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 31 (12), pp. 3307-3332.

Fava F., Parolo, G., Colombo R., Gusmeroli F., Della Marianna G., Monteiro A.T., Bocchi S. (2010). Fine-scale assessment of hay meadow productivity and plant diversity in the European Alps using field spectrometric data, Agriculture, Ecosystems, & Environment, 137, pp. 151-157

Yi, C., Li, R., Wolbeck, J., Xu, X., Nilsson, M., [...], Migliavacca, M., [...] (2010)Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents. Environmental Research Letters, 5 (3), art. no. 034007.

Alberto Díaz-Varela R. A., Colombo R., Meroni M., Calvo-Iglesias M. S., Buffoni A., Tagliaferri A. (2010). Spatio-temporal analysis of alpine ecotones: A spatial explicit model targeting altitudinal vegetation shifts. Ecological Modelling, 221(4) 621-633.

Meroni M., Busetto L., Colombo R., Guanter L., Moreno J., Verhoef W. (2010). Performance of spectral fitting methods for vegetation fluorescence quantification, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 363-374.

Damm, A., Elbers, J., Erler, A., Gioli, B., Hamdi, K., Hutjes, R., Kosvancova, M., Meroni, M., Miglietta, F., Moersch, A., Moreno, J., Schickling, A., Sonnenschein, R., Udelhoven, T., Van der Linden, S., Hostert, P., Rascher, U. (2010). Remote sensing of sun-induced fluorescence to improve modeling of diurnal courses of gross primary production (GPP), Global Change Biology, 16, 171-186.



Meroni, M., Rossini, M., Guanter, L., Alonso, L., Rascher, U., Colombo, R., Moreno, J. (2009). Remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Review of methods and applications, Remote Sensing of Environment, 113, 2037–2051, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2009.05.003.

Rascher, U., Agati, G., Alonso, L., Cecchi, G., Champagne, S., Colombo, R., Damm, A., Daumard, F., de Miguel, E., Fernandez, G., Franch, B., Franke, J., Gerbig, C., Gioli, B., Gomez, J.A., Goulas, Y., Guanter, L., Gutierrez-de-la-Camara, O., Hamdi, K., Hostert, P. Jimenez, M., Kosvancova, M., Lognoli, D., Meroni, M., Miglietta, F., Moersch, A., Moreno, J., Moya, I., Neininger, B., Okujeni, A., Ounis, A., Palombi, L., Raimondi, V., Schickling, A., Sobrino, J.A., Stellmes, M., Toci, G., Toscano, P., Udelhoven, T. , Van der Linden, S., Zaldei, A. (2009). CEFLES2: the remote sensing component to quantify photosynthetic efficiency from the leaf to the region by measuring sun-induced fluorescence in the oxygen absorption bands, Biogeosciences, 6, 1181–1198, 2009.

Colombo R., Busetto L., Migliavacca M., Cremonese E. , Meroni M., Galvagno M., Rossini M., Siniscalco C., Morra di Cella U. (2009). On the spatial and temporal variability of Larch phenological cycle in mountainous areas. Italian Journal of Remote Sensing , 41(2), 79-96.

Panigada C., Rossini M., Meroni M., Marzuoli R., Gerosa G., Colombo R. (2009). Indicators of ozone effects on Fagus sylvatica L. by means of spectroradiometric measurements. Italian Journal of Remote Sensing, 41 (2), 3-20.

Colombo R., Busetto L., Migliavacca M., Meroni M., Della Torre C., Tagliaferri A, Grassi G., Seufert G. (2009). Modellistica del ciclo del carbonio degli ecosistemi agro-forestali in regione Lombardia. Forest@. doi:10.3832/efor0593-006.

Meroni M. and Colombo R., (2009). 3S: a novel program for field spectroscopy. Computers & Geosciences, 35, 1491-1496, 10.1016/j.cageo.2009.01.005.

Migliavacca M., Meroni M., Manca G., Matteucci G., Montagnani L., Grassi G., Zenone T., Teobaldelli M., Goded I., Colombo R. and Seufert, G. (2009). Seasonal and interannual patterns of carbon and water fluxes of a poplar plantation under peculiar eco-climatic conditions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 149(9) , 1460-1476 .

Meroni M. , Panigada C. , Rossini M. , Picchi V., Cogliati S. , Colombo R. (2009). Using optical remote sensing techniques to track the development of ozone-induced stress. Environmental Pollution, 157(5), 1413-1420.

Gerosa G., Marzuoli R., Rossini M. , Panigada C. , Meroni M. , Colombo R. , Faoro F., Iriti M. (2009). A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers. Environmental Pollution, 157(5), 1727-1736.

Migliavacca M., Meroni M., Busetto L., Colombo R., Zenone T., Matteucci G., Manca G. and Seufert G. (2009). Modeling Gross Primary Production of Agro-Forestry Ecosystems by Assimilation of Satellite Derived Information in a Process-Based Model. Sensors, 9(2), 922-942; doi:10.3390/s90200922.

Teobaldelli M., Somogyi Z., Migliavacca M. , Usoltsev A.U. (2009). Generalized functions of biomass expansion factors for conifers and broadleaved by stand age, growing stock and site index. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 257, Issue 3: pp. 1004-1013.

Iriti M., Di Maro A., Bernasconi S., Burlini N., Simonetti, P., Picchi V., Panigada C., Gerosa G., Parente A., Faoro F. (2009). Nutritional traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds from plants chronically exposed to ozone pollution, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry , 57: 1, pp. 201-8.

Fava F., Colombo R., Bocchi S., Meroni M., Sitzia M., Fois N.,  Zucca C. (2009). Identification of hyperspectral vegetation indices for Mediterranean pasture characterization. International Journal of Applied Earth Information and Geoinformation, 11, 233-243. ).



Meroni M. , Picchi V., Rossini M ., Cogliati S. , Panigada C. , Nali C., Lorenzini G., Colombo R. (2008). Leaf level early assessment of ozone injuries by passive fluorescence and PRI. International Journal of Remote Sensing , 29 (17), 5409-5422.

Migliavacca M. , Cremonese E., Colombo R. , Busetto L. , Galvagno M. , Ganis L., Meroni M. , Pari E., Rossini M. , Siniscalco C., Morra di Cella U. (2008). European Larch phenology in the Alps : can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling? International Journal of Biometeorology , 52 (7), 587-605.

Busetto L., Meroni M., Colombo R., (2008). Combining medium and coarse spatial resolution satellite data to improve the estimation of sub-pixel NDVI time series, Remote Sensing of Environment ,112 (1), 118-131.

Colombo R., Meroni M., Marchesi A., Busetto L., Rossini M., Giardino C., Panigada C.(2008). Estimation of leaf and canopy water content in poplar plantations by means of hyperspectral indices and inverse modeling, Remote Sensing of Environment,112 (4),1820-1834.

Göckede, M., Foken, T., Aubinet, M., Aurela, M., Banza, J., Bernhofer, C., Bonnefond, J. M., Brunet, Y., Carrara, A., Clement, R., Dellwik, E., Elbers, J., Eugster, W., Fuhrer, J., Granier, A., Grünwald, T., Heinesch, B., Janssens, I. A., Knohl, A., Koeble, R., Laurila, T., Longdoz, B., Manca, G., Marek, M., Markkanen, T., Mateus, J., Matteucci, G., Mauder, M., Migliavacca, M., Minerbi, S., Moncrieff, J., Montagnani, L., Moors, E., Ourcival, J.-M., Papale, D., Pereira, J., Pilegaard, K., Pita, G., Rambal, S., Rebmann, C., Rodrigues, A., Rotenberg, E., Sanz, M. J., Sedlak, P., Seufert, G., Siebicke, L., Soussana, J. F., Valentini, R., Vesala, T., Verbeeck, H., and Yakir, D.: Quality control of CarboEurope flux data -- Part 1: Coupling footprint analyses with flux data quality assessment to evaluate sites in forest ecosystems, Biogeosciences, 5, 433-450, 2008.

Meroni, M., Rossini, M., Picchi, V., Panigada, C., Cogliati, S., Nali, C., and Colombo , R. (2008), Assessing steady-state fluorescence and PRI from hyperspectral proximal sensing as early indicators of plant stress: the case of ozone exposure. Sensors , 8, 1740-1754.

Fava F. , Panigada C. , Rossini M. , Meroni M. , Busetto L. , Colombo R. (2008). Un metodo fisicamente basato per la stima della clorofilla in canopy forestali da dati iperspettrali MIVIS. Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento , 40 (3), 3-15.


Rossini M., Panigada C., Meroni M., Busetto L., Castrovinci R., Colombo R., (2007). Monitoraggio delle Condizioni della Farnia nel Parco del Ticino mediante Tecniche di Telerilevamento Iperspettrale. Forest@.4 (2) 194-203.

Colombo R., Vogt J., Paracchini M. L., Soille P., de Jager (2007). A methodology for Deriving River Networks in Heterogeneous Landscapes and its Application to Europe , Catena , 70, 296-305.

Picchi, V., Meroni, M., Nali, C., Cogliati, S., Rossini, M., Panigada, C., Lorenzini, G., and Colombo R. (2007), Remote sensing detection of early ozone damage. Journal of Plant Pathology , 89 (1), 161.

De Matteo E, Colombo R, Meroni M, Comini B., Fracassi G., Cavini L., Olivieri M, Deligios G. (2007). Delimitazione di aree boschive montane percorse dal fuoco mediante immagini satellitari ad alta risoluzione geometrica Forest@ , 4 (3), 264-271.

Luyssaert, S., I., Inglima, M. Jung, A.D. Richardson, M. Reichstein , D. Papale, S.L. Piao, E.-D. Schulze, L.Wingate, G. Matteucci, L. Aragao, M. Aubinet, C. Beer , C. Bernhofer, K.G. Black, D. Bonal, J.-M. Bonnefond, J.Chambers, P. Ciais, B. Cook, K.J. Davis, A.J. Dolman, B. Gielen, M. Goulden, J. Grace, A. Granier, A. Grelle, T. Griffis, T. Grünwald, G. Guidolotti, P.J. Hanson, R. Harding, D.Y. Hollinger, L.R. Hutyra, P. Kolari, B. Kruijt, W. Kutsch, F. Lagergren, T. Laurila, B.E. Law, G. Le Maire, A. Lindroth, D. Loustau, Y. Malhi, J. Mateus, M. Migliavacca , L. Misson, L. Montagnani, J. Moncrieff, E. Moors, J.W. Munger, E. Nikinmaa, S.V. Ollinger, G. Pita, C. Rebmann, O. Roupsard, N. Saigusa, M.J. Sanz, G. Seufert, C. Sierra, M.-L. Smith, J. Tang, R. Valentini, T. Vesala and I.A. Janssens (2007). The CO2 - balance of boreal, temperate and tropical forests derived from a global database. Global Change Biology, 13(12): 2509-2537.


Colombo R., Meroni M., Busetto L., Marchesi A., Giardino C., Panigada C., Del Pero G., Marino C.M. (2006). Stima del contenuto d'acqua della vegetazione tramite osservazioni iperspettrali Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento , 36: 39-53.

Rossini M. , Panigada C. , Meroni M. , Colombo R ., (2006). Assessment of oak forest condition based on leaf biochemical variables and chlorophyll fluorescence. Tree Physiology , 26-11: 1487–1496.

Meroni M. and Colombo R., (2006). Leaf level detection of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence by means of a subnanometer resolution spectroradiometer, Remote Sensing of Environment. 103-4: 438-448.

Morisette, J., Privette, J. L., Baret, F., Myneni, R.B., Nickeson, J., Garrigues S., Shabanov S., Fernandes, R., Leblanc, S., Kalacska, M., Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Chubey, M., Rivard, B. Stenberg, P., Rautiainen, M., Voipio, P., Manninen, T., Pilant, D. Lewis, T., Iiames, J., Colombo, R., Meroni, M., Busetto, L., Cohen, W., Turner, D., Warner, E.D., Petersen, G.W., Seufert, G. and R. Cooke, (2005), Validation of Global Moderate-Resolution LAI Products: A Framework Proposed Within the CEOS Land Product Validation Subgroup, IEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Volume:44 Issue:7 Part: 1  2006 1804-1817.


Panigada C. , Rossini M. , Meroni M. , Busetto L ., Colombo R. , Marino C.M . (2005). Telerilevamento iperspettrale per il monitoraggio forestale: valutazione dello stato di salute dei querceti del Parco Ticino Lombardo.  Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento , 33/34: 119-135.


Meroni M., Colombo R., Panigada C., (2004). Inversion of a radiative transfer model with hyperspectral observations for LAI mapping in poplar plantations, Remote Sensing of Environment , 92-2, 195-206.


Colombo R., Bellingeri D., Fasolini D., Marino C.M. (2003). Retrieval of Leaf Area Index in Different Vegetation Types using High Resolution Satellite Data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 86/1 120 – 131.

Vogt J., Colombo R., F. Bertolo (2003). Deriving Drainage Network and catchments boundaries. A New Methodology Combining Digital Elevation Data and Environmental Characteristics, Geomorphology , vol. 53/3-4, 281-298.

Soille, P., J.Vogt, R. Colombo, Carving and adaptive drainage enforcement of grid digital elevation models (2003), Water Resour. Res ., 39(12), 1366, doi:10.1029/2003WR001879.

Röser C., L. Montagnani, E.D. Schulze, D. Mollicone, O. Kolle, M. Meroni, D. Papale, L. B. Marchesini, S.Federici, R. Valentini (2003). Net CO2 exchange rates in three different successional stages of the "Dark Taiga" of central Siberia, 2003, Tellus - Series B, Vol. 54, issue 5.


Brivio P.A., Colombo R., Maggi M., Tomasoni R. (2002). Integration of remote sensing data and GIS for accurate mapping of flooded areas, Int. Journal of Remote Sensing , 23: 3, pp. 429- 441 .

Meroni M., Panigada C., Colombo R., Boschetti M., Brivio P.A., Marino C.M. (2002). Osservazioni remote iperspettrali e multiangolari per la stima dei parametri biofisici della vegetazione: parte II - tecniche di telerilevamento, Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento , 24: 15-23.

Colombo R., Boschetti M., Giardino C., Meroni M., Panigada C., Busetto L. , Brivio P.A., Marino C.M. e Seufert G.M. (2002) - Osservazioni remote iperspettrali e multiangolari per la stima dei parametri biofisici della vegetazione: parte I - disegno dell'esperimento e analisi dei dati, Rivista Italiana Telerilevamento, 24, pp. 5-13.

Marino C.M. (2001). L'evoluzione, gli obiettivi e i ruoli del Laboratorio Aereo per Ricerche Ambientali (LARA) del CNR nell'ambito del telerilevamento iperspettrale. Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento , 20/21, 7-10.

Marino C.M. , Galli A., Panigada C. , Busetto L. (2001). Aspetti metodologici ed operativi nella caratterizzazione spettrale e spaziale di coperture in cemento amianto: l'esempio del Comune di Broni (Pv). Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento , 20/21, 27-29.